All British Historical Anniversaries in July 2021

I often wonder what significant anniversaries are due at some point in the future as some of them might be of interest as triggers for blog posts or visits somewhere. However, it is often difficult to find out quickly what events have significant anniversaries - hence this section on the website.

By "significant anniversaries", I mean dates that are not, for example, the 73rd anniversary of something, but the 50th, 100th, 200th etc.

It should help to flag up interesting events.

Anniversaries during July 2021

Note: This page lists ALL anniversaries, not just the key dates.
For that more useful list, click here.

184th A system of the civil registration of births, marriages and deaths is established in England and Wales. (1st Jul 1837)
163rd Joint reading of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace's papers on evolution to the Linnean Society. (1st Jul 1858)
140th General Order 70, the culmination of the Cardwell and Childers reforms of the British Army, comes into effect. (1st Jul 1881)
105th World War I: First day on the Somme - On the first day of the Battle of the Somme 19,000 soldiers of the British Army are killed and 40,000 wounded (1st Jul 1916)
58th The British Government admits that former diplomat Kim Philby had worked as a Soviet agent. (1st Jul 1963)
49th The first Gay Pride march in England takes place. (1st Jul 1972)
307th Parliament offers the Longitude prize to anyone who can solve the problem of accurately determining a ship's longitude. (date uncertain) (1st Jul 1714)
82nd Women's Land Army re-formed to work in agriculture. (1st Jul 1939)
73rd The Town and Country Planning Act 1947 and its equivalent in Scotland come into effect as the foundation of modern town and country planning in the United Kingdom, requiring planning permission for land development and establishing the system of Listed buildings. (1st Jul 1948)
73rd The National Museum of Wales opens the Welsh Folk Museum at St Fagans to the public, the first open-air museum in the UK (director: Iorwerth Peate). (1st Jul 1948)
103rd explosion of 8 tons of TNT at the National Shell Filling Factory, Chilwell (Nottinghamshire) kills 134; only 32 bodies can be positively identified. (1st Jul 1918)
19th London City Hall is opened on the south bank of the River Thames, designed by Norman Foster. (1st Jul 2002)
19th Rochdale Canal, crossing the Pennines, reopened throughout for leisure traffic. (1st Jul 2002)
12th The government announces that it is taking the InterCity East Coast franchise into a period of public ownership, after the incumbent operator, National Express East Coast, said it planned to default on its franchise agreement. (1st Jul 2009)
408th The first English expedition from Massachusetts against Acadia led by Samuel Argall takes place. (2nd Jul 1613)
377th English Civil War: Battle of Marston Moor. (2nd Jul 1644)
323rd Thomas Savery patents the first steam engine. (2nd Jul 1698)
156th The Christian Mission, later renamed The Salvation Army, is founded in Whitechapel, London by William and Catherine Booth. (2nd Jul 1865)
20th Barry George is sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of the television presenter Jill Dando, who was killed in Fulham, London, on 26 April 1999. George is acquitted at a retrial in 2008. (2nd Jul 2001)
18th Chelsea F.C. are bought by Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich for a sum of ?150,000,000 from current chairman Ken Bates, twenty-one years after he bought the club for ?1. (2nd Jul 2003)
16th Live 8 concerts are held. (2nd Jul 2005)
14th Demolition work began on the historic HP Sauce factory in Birmingham, which closed in May with the loss of 125 jobs and the end of more than 100 years of manufacturing when the production facility was transferred to the Netherlands. (2nd Jul 2007)
83rd World speed record for a steam railway locomotive is set in England, by the Mallard, which reaches a speed of 126 miles per hour (203 km/h). (3rd Jul 1938)
51st The Troubles: the "Falls Curfew" begins in Belfast, Northern Ireland. (3rd Jul 1970)
51st A British Dan-Air De Havilland Comet chartered jetliner crashes into mountains north of Barcelona, Spain killing 113 people. (3rd Jul 1970)
6th Production is suspended at the last substantial coal mine in Wales, Aberpergwm. (3rd Jul 2015)
19th Decapitation of a statue of Margaret Thatcher: a man decapitates a statue of the former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher on display at the Guildhall Art Gallery in London. (3rd Jul 2002)
184th Grand Junction Railway, the world's first long-distance railway, opens between Birmingham and Liverpool. (4th Jul 1837)
159th Lewis Carroll tells Alice Liddell a story that would grow into Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequels. (4th Jul 1862)
156th Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is published. (4th Jul 1865)
67th Fourteen years of rationing during and following World War II comes to an end when meat officially comes off ration. (4th Jul 1954)
182nd Chartists riot in Birmingham. (4th Jul 1839)
73rd Northwood mid-air collision: A Scandinavian Airlines Douglas DC-6 and an Avro York of No. 99 Squadron RAF collide over Northwood, London and crash killing all 39 people aboard both aircraft. (4th Jul 1948)
128th an underground explosion at Combs Pit, Thornhill, West Yorkshire, kills 135. (4th Jul 1893)
726th Scotland and France form an alliance, the so-called "Auld Alliance", against England. (5th Jul 1295)
411th John Guy sets sail from Bristol with 39 other colonists for Newfoundland. (5th Jul 1610)
334th Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiĉ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. (5th Jul 1687)
208th War of 1812: three weeks of British raids on Fort Schlosser, Black Rock and Plattsburgh, New York begin. (5th Jul 1813)
156th The Salvation Army is founded in the East End of London, England. (5th Jul 1865)
81st World War II: the United Kingdom and the Vichy France government break off diplomatic relations. (5th Jul 1940)
73rd National Health Service Acts created the national public health systems in the United Kingdom (5th Jul 1948)
67th The BBC broadcasts its first television news bulletin. (5th Jul 1954)
46th Arthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon singles title. (5th Jul 1975)
156th First speed limit is introduced in Britain by the Locomotive Act — 2 mph in town and 4 mph in the country. (5th Jul 1865)
9th The Shard, the tallest building in Europe and the tallest habitable free-standing structure in the UK at 309.6 metres (1,016?ft), is officially opened. (5th Jul 2012)
19th The Imperial War Museum North in Manchester, designed by Daniel Libeskind, opens. (5th Jul 2002)
12th The Staffordshire Hoard, the largest haul of Anglo-Saxon treasure ever found, is uncovered. The 1,500 gold and silver pieces are discovered buried beneath a field in Staffordshire by metal detecting enthusiast Terry Herbert. This is made public on 24 September. (5th Jul 2009)
832nd Richard I "the Lionheart" is crowned King of England. (6th Jul 1189)
538th Richard III is crowned King of England. (6th Jul 1483)
486th Sir Thomas More is executed for treason against King Henry VIII of England. (6th Jul 1535)
464th King Philip II of Spain, consort of Queen Mary I of England, sets out from Dover to war with France, which eventually results in the loss of the City of Calais, the last English possession on the continent, and Mary I never seeing her husband again. (6th Jul 1557)
461st The Treaty of Edinburgh is signed by Scotland and England. (6th Jul 1560)
136th Louis Pasteur successfully tests his vaccine against rabies. The patient is Joseph Meister, a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog. (6th Jul 1885)
129th Dadabhai Naoroji is elected as the first Indian Member of Parliament in Britain. (6th Jul 1892)
102nd The British dirigible R34 lands in New York, completing the first crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by an airship. (6th Jul 1919)
85th A major breach of the Manchester, Bolton and Bury Canal in England sends millions of gallons of water cascading 200 feet (61 m) into the River Irwell. (6th Jul 1936)
43rd The Taunton sleeping car fire occurs in Taunton, Somerset killing twelve people. (6th Jul 1978)
48th The James Bond film Live and Let Die is released in British cinemas. (6th Jul 1973)
5th The Chilcot Inquiry report into the Iraq War is released, more than seven years after the inquiry was first announced, showing that the UK went to war before peaceful options were exhausted, that military action was not the "last resort", ill-prepared troops were sent into battle with inadequate plans for the aftermath, and that the threat from Saddam Hussein was overstated; ultimately rejecting former Prime Minister Tony Blair's case for the 2003 invasion. (6th Jul 2016)
132nd Several aristocrats are implicated in the Cleveland Street scandal after police raid a male brothel in London. (6th Jul 1889)
17th The Queen unveils a memorial fountain to Diana, Princess of Wales. (6th Jul 2004)
446th Raid of the Redeswire, the last major battle between England and Scotland. (7th Jul 1575)
110th The United States, Great Britain, Japan, and Russia sign the North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911 banning open-water seal hunting, the first international treaty to address wildlife preservation issues. (7th Jul 1911)
108th The Irish Home Rule Bill is once again carried in the House of Commons, despite attempts by Bonar Law to obstruct it. (7th Jul 1913)
258th The British East India Company declare Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal, to be deposed. (7th Jul 1763)
7th Home Secretary Theresa May announces a major review and inquiry into allegations of historical child abuse across all areas of UK society. The announcement was prompted by reports that the Home Office failed to act on allegations that a paedophile ring operated at Westminster during the 1980s. (7th Jul 2014)
10th Following recent allegations that its journalists had hacked into the mobile phones of celebrities, politicians and high-profile crime victims over the last decade, it was announced that the News of the World would cease publication after its final edition on Sunday 10 July, having been in circulation for 168 years. (7th Jul 2011)
43rd the Solomon Islands become independent from the United Kingdom. (7th Jul 1978)
2nd The Trump administration is labelled "inept", "insecure" and "incompetent" in leaked emails from the British Ambassador to the United States, Sir Kim Darroch. (7th Jul 2019)
16th A series of co-ordinated terrorist bombings strike London's public transport system during the morning rush hour. Three bombs exploded within fifty seconds of each other on three London Underground trains. A fourth bomb exploded on a bus an hour later in Tavistock Square. 52 civilians are killed and over 700 people were injured. (7th Jul 2005)
358th Charles II of England grants John Clarke a Royal Charter to Rhode Island. (8th Jul 1663)
199th Chippewas turn over a huge tract of land in Ontario to the United Kingdom. (8th Jul 1822)
5th Women are permitted to serve in close combat roles in the British armed services. (8th Jul 2016)
56th Great Train Robber Ronald Biggs escapes from Wandsworth Prison. (8th Jul 1965)
10th Rushden & Diamonds F.C. went out of business after 19 years in existence, having recently been expelled from the Blue Square Premier League because of their huge debts. The Northamptonshire club had been members of the Football League from 2001 until 2006. (8th Jul 2011)
19th John Taylor, a 46-year-old postman from Bramley in Leeds, is sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of 16-year-old Leanne Tiernan. Leanne was last seen alive in Leeds City Centre on 26 November 2000 and her body was found in the Yorkshire countryside nine months later. Police believed that Taylor may have been responsible for other unsolved sex attacks and murders in the Yorkshire area, and the trial judge has warned Taylor to expect to spend the rest of his life in prison. (8th Jul 2002)
481st King Henry VIII of England annuls his marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. (9th Jul 1540)
121st Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom gives royal assent to an Act creating the Commonwealth of Australia thus uniting separate colonies on the continent under one federal government. (9th Jul 1900)
78th World War II: Operation Husky - Allied forces perform an amphibious invasion of Sicily. (9th Jul 1943)
49th The Troubles: In Belfast, British Army snipers shoot five civilians dead in the Springhill Massacre. (9th Jul 1972)
4th The Lake District becomes an officially recognised UNESCO World Heritage Site. (9th Jul 2017)
306th Imprisonment of Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford, in the Tower of London for his part in the negotiations over the Treaty of Utrecht. (9th Jul 1715)
11th Northumbria police are reported to have found an armed man, believed to be murder suspect Raoul Moat, in the local area and are negotiating with him to persuade him to give himself up. (9th Jul 2010)
83rd gas masks are issued to the civilian population. (9th Jul 1938)
809th The most severe of several early fires of London burns most of the city to the ground. (10th Jul 1212)
561st Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick defeats the king's Lancastrian forces and takes King Henry VI prisoner in the Battle of Northampton. (10th Jul 1460)
468th Lady Jane Grey takes the throne of England. (10th Jul 1553)
376th English Civil War: The Battle of Langport takes place. (10th Jul 1645)
243rd American Revolution: Louis XVI of France declares war on the Kingdom of Great Britain. (10th Jul 1778)
215th The Vellore Mutiny is the first instance of a mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company. (10th Jul 1806)
100th Belfast's Bloody Sunday: 16 people are killed and 161 houses destroyed during rioting and gun battles in Belfast, Northern Ireland. (10th Jul 1921)
81st Battle of Britain - The German Luftwaffe begins attacking British convoys in the English Channel thus starting the battle (this start date is contested, though). (10th Jul 1940)
57th More than 300 people are injured in Liverpool when a crowd of some 150,000 people welcome The Beatles back to their home city. (10th Jul 1964)
206th Apothecaries Act prohibits unlicensed medical practitioners. (10th Jul 1815)
9th The Trades Union Congress confirms the appointment of its first female General Secretary. Frances O'Grady will take up the role at the end of the year. (10th Jul 2012)
63rd first parking meters installed in the UK. (10th Jul 1958)
245th Captain James Cook begins his third voyage. (11th Jul 1776)
173rd Waterloo railway station in London opens. (11th Jul 1848)
139th The British Mediterranean fleet begins the Bombardment of Alexandria in Egypt as part of the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War. (11th Jul 1882)
59th First transatlantic satellite television transmission. (11th Jul 1962)
4th The government announces more than ?100?million of investment in the UK's space sector. (11th Jul 2017)
5th Theresa May is announced as the Conservative Party leader (and Prime Minister-designate), after Andrea Leadsom withdraws from the leadership election. (11th Jul 2016)
2nd Tommy Robinson, having been found guilty of contempt of court on 5 July, is sentenced at the Old Bailey to nine months in prison. (11th Jul 2019)
16th Littlewoods sells its 119 stores across the UK to Associated British Foods in a ?409,000,000 deal which will see them converted into Primark clothing stores and will mean that the Littlewoods name will vanish from high streets and shopping centres next year after 83 years, although Littlewoods will continue trading as a catalogue and an online retailer. (11th Jul 2005)
3rd US President Donald Trump arrives in the UK. The four-day visit includes talks with Theresa May, tea with the Queen and a trip to Scotland. There are mass protests in London, featuring a six-metre-tall (20?ft) 'Trump baby' blimp flown over Westminster. (12th Jul 2018)
331st Glorious Revolution: Battle of the Boyne. (12th Jul 1690)
1094th Æthelstan, King of England, secures a pledge from Constantine II of Scotland that the latter will not ally with Viking kings, beginning the process of unifying Great Britain. (12th Jul 0927)
478th King Henry VIII of England marries his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr, at Hampton Court Palace. (12th Jul 1543)
89th Hedley Verity takes a cricket world record 10 wickets for 10 runs in a county match for Yorkshire (12th Jul 1932)
59th The Rolling Stones perform their first ever concert, at the Marquee Club in London. (12th Jul 1962)
4th A gay man, John Walker, wins a landmark ruling at the Supreme Court, giving his husband the same pension rights as a wife would receive. (12th Jul 2017)
77th Release of Laurence Olivier's Henry V, the first work of Shakespeare filmed in colour. (12th Jul 1944)
128th Dundee football club, is formed. (12th Jul 1893)
2nd Former Blue Peter presenter John Leslie is charged with sexually assaulting a 30-year-old woman in Westminster in December 2008. (12th Jul 2019)
19th Ribble Link waterway opened for leisure traffic. (12th Jul 2002)
16th Southampton Institute of Higher Education becomes a university; on 15 August, it adopts the name Southampton Solent University. (12th Jul 2005)
847th William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Henry II of England. (13th Jul 1174)
378th English Civil War: Battle of Roundway Down - In England, Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, commanding the Royalist forces, heavily defeats the Parliamentarian forces led by Sir William Waller. (13th Jul 1643)
102nd The British airship R34 lands in Norfolk, England, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight. (13th Jul 1919)
59th In an unprecedented action, British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan dismisses seven members of his Cabinet, marking the effective end of the National Liberals as a distinct force within British politics. (13th Jul 1962)
66th Ruth Ellis becomes the last woman to be hanged in the UK, at HM Prison Holloway, for shooting dead a lover, David Blakely, outside a pub in Hampstead in April. (13th Jul 1955)
19th Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art opens in the converted Baltic Flour Mill at Gateshead. (13th Jul 2002)
3rd The RRS Sir David Attenborough is launched into the River Mersey by its namesake, Sir David Attenborough. (14th Jul 2018)
230th The Priestley Riots drive Joseph Priestley, a supporter of the French Revolution, out of Birmingham, England. (14th Jul 1791)
17th The Butler Inquiry releases its report, mildly criticising the government in their use of intelligence relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq. (14th Jul 2004)
3rd The ongoing heatwave and dry conditions lead to a huge grass fire on Wanstead Flats, East London, which becomes the largest incident of its kind ever dealt with by the London Fire Brigade. (15th Jul 2018)
814th King John of England expels Canterbury monks for supporting Archbishop Stephen Langton. (15th Jul 1207)
640th John Ball, a leader in the Peasants' Revolt, is hanged, drawn and quartered in the presence of King Richard II of England. (15th Jul 1381)
336th Monmouth Rebellion: James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth is executed at Tower Hill, England after his defeat at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685. (15th Jul 1685)
222nd The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign. (15th Jul 1799)
68th John Christie is hanged at Pentonville Prison, where a large crowd wait for the notice of execution to be posted. (15th Jul 1953)
57th The Post Office Tower in London is completed, although it does not begin operation until October 1965. (15th Jul 1964)
67th Donald McGill, the artist of saucy seaside postcards, found guilty of breaching the Obscene Publications Act 1857. (15th Jul 1954)
132nd The Scottish National Portrait Gallery opens in Edinburgh, the first in the world to be purpose-built as a portrait gallery. (15th Jul 1889)
43rd German terrorist Astrid Proll arrested in London. (15th Jul 1978)
73rd first London chapter of Alcoholics Anonymous. (15th Jul 1948)
103rd ration books introduced for butter, margarine, lard, meat, and sugar. (15th Jul 1918)
644th Coronation of Richard II of England. (16th Jul 1377)
106th Henry James becomes a British citizen, to highlight his commitment to England during the first World War. (16th Jul 1915)
76th World War II: the leaders of the three Allied nations, Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin, meet in the German city of Potsdam to decide the future of a defeated Germany. (16th Jul 1945)
12th ITV announces that its news and information Teletext service will be discontinued within the next six months as a result of mounting losses and the inability to find a viable business model to continue. (16th Jul 2009)
304th King George I of Great Britain sails down the River Thames with a barge of 50 musicians, where George Frideric Handel's Water Music is premiered. (17th Jul 1717)
104th King George V of the United Kingdom issues a Proclamation stating that the male line descendants of the British royal family will bear the surname Windsor. (17th Jul 1917)
103rd The RMS Carpathia, the ship that rescued the 705 survivors from the RMS Titanic, is sunk off Ireland by the German SM U-55; 5 lives are lost. (17th Jul 1918)
47th A bomb planted by the Provisional IRA exploded in the Tower of London, killing one person and injuring 41. (17th Jul 1974)
8th Same-sex marriage becomes legal in England and Wales after the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013 receives Royal Assent. (17th Jul 2013)
53rd the Beatles animated film Yellow Submarine debuts in London. (17th Jul 1968)
15th George W. Bush greets Tony Blair with the phrase ?Yo, Blair?. (17th Jul 2006)
731st King Edward I of England issues the Edict of Expulsion, banishing all Jews (numbering about 16,000) from England; this was Tisha B'Av on the Hebrew calendar, a day that commemorates many Jewish calamities. (18th Jul 1290)
632nd Kingdom of France and Kingdom of England agree to the Truce of Leulinghem, in inaugurating a 13 year peace; the longest period of sustained peace during the Hundred Years War. (18th Jul 1389)
68th The Quatermass Experiment, first of the Quatermass science-fiction serials begins its run on BBC TV. (18th Jul 1953)
98th Matrimonial Causes Act grants wives he equal right to divorce husbands for adultery. (18th Jul 1923)
87th Opening of the Queensway Tunnel beneath the River Mersey by King George V. (18th Jul 1934)
16th Criminalisation of magic mushrooms (18th Jul 2005)
15th 180 British citizens evacuated from the Lebanon due to growing crisis between Hizbollah militants and Israel. (18th Jul 2006)
14th Stadium mk, a 22,000-seat multi purpose stadium, is opened in Milton Keynes. Its main tenants are Milton Keynes Dons F.C. (18th Jul 2007)
688th Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Halidon Hill - The English win a decisive victory over the Scots. (19th Jul 1333)
476th The Tudor warship Mary Rose sinks off Portsmouth; in 1982 the wreck is salvaged in one of the most complex and expensive projects in the history of maritime archaeology. (19th Jul 1545)
468th Lady Jane Grey is replaced by Mary I of England as Queen of England after only nine days of reign. (19th Jul 1553)
433rd Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines - The Spanish Armada is sighted in the English Channel. (19th Jul 1588)
189th The British Medical Association is founded as the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association by Sir Charles Hastings at a meeting in the Board Room of the Worcester Infirmary. (19th Jul 1832)
81st World War II: Army order 112 forms the Intelligence Corps of the British Army. (19th Jul 1940)
49th Dhofar Rebellion: British SAS units help the Omani government against Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman rebels in the Battle of Mirbat. (19th Jul 1972)
4th The government announces that a rise in the State Pension age to 68 will be phased in between 2037 and 2039, rather than from 2044 as was originally planned. This will affect 6 million men and women currently aged between 39 and 47 years old. (19th Jul 2017)
178th Isambard Kingdom Brunel's SS Great Britain is launched from Bristol. (19th Jul 1843)
2nd The Iranian Navy of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps captures British tanker Stena Impero and temporarily seizes British-operated and Liberian-flagged tanker Mesdar in the Persian Gulf. The Foreign Secretary, Jeremy Hunt, warns there will be "serious consequences" if Iran does not release the tanker. (19th Jul 2019)
20th Politician and novelist Jeffrey Archer is sentenced to four years in prison for perjury and perverting the course of justice. (19th Jul 2001)
17th The Government announces backing for the Crossrail project. (19th Jul 2004)
717th Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the stronghold using the War Wolf. (20th Jul 1304)
20th Rioting breaks out in Brixton, London, following the fatal shooting of Derek Bennett, a 29-year-old black man, by armed police in the area. 27 people are arrested and three police officers are injured. (20th Jul 2001)
17th Government to publish results of review into Council Tax in England. (20th Jul 2004)
618th Battle of Shrewsbury: King Henry IV of England defeats rebels to the north of the county town of Shropshire, England. (21st Jul 1403)
96th Sir Malcolm Campbell becomes the first man to break the 150 mph (241 km/h) land barrier at Pendine Sands in Wales. He drove a Sunbeam at a two-way average speed of 150.33 mph (242 km/h). (21st Jul 1925)
49th Bloody Friday bombings by the Provisional IRA around Belfast, Northern Ireland - 22 bombs are detonated, killing 9 and seriously injuring 130. (21st Jul 1972)
45th Christopher Ewart-Biggs British ambassador to the Republic of Ireland is assassinated by the Provisional IRA. (21st Jul 1976)
208th Doctrine of the Trinity Act provides toleration for Unitarian worship. (21st Jul 1813)
107th A conference at Buckingham Palace fails to resolve differences between Irish unionists and nationalists over Home Rule. (21st Jul 1914)
16th Four attempted bomb attacks in London disrupt part of the capital's public transport. Small explosions occur around midday at Shepherd's Bush, Warren Street and Oval stations on London Underground, and on a bus in Bethnal Green. However, there are no injuries. (21st Jul 2005)
723rd Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk - King Edward I of England and his longbowmen defeat William Wallace and his Scottish schiltrons outside the town of Falkirk. (22nd Jul 1298)
537th Battle of Lochmaben Fair - A 500-man raiding party led by Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany and James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas are defeated by Scots forces loyal to Albany's brother James III of Scotland; Douglas is captured. (22nd Jul 1484)
315th The Acts of Union 1707 are agreed upon by commissioners from the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, which, when passed by each countries' Parliaments, lead to the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain. (22nd Jul 1706)
224th Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Battle between Spanish and British naval forces during the French Revolutionary Wars. During the Battle, Rear-Admiral Nelson is wounded in the arm and the arm had to be partially amputated. (22nd Jul 1797)
6th The University of Birmingham finds in its archives the oldest known surviving fragments of the Koran, and plans to put them on public display. (22nd Jul 2015)
8th Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge gives birth to a boy at St Mary's Hospital, London who becomes third in line to the throne and Queen Elizabeth II's third great-grandchild. He is subsequently named George Alexander Louis. (22nd Jul 2013)
156th The SS Great Eastern departs on a voyage to lay a transatlantic telegraph cable. (22nd Jul 1865)
2nd Jo Swinson is elected by party members as the new leader of the Liberal Democrats, succeeding Sir Vince Cable. She becomes both the first woman to lead the party and its youngest ever leader at age 39. (22nd Jul 2019)
16th Tower of St Edmundsbury Cathedral at Bury St Edmunds completed. (22nd Jul 2005)
12th Cardiff City F.C. move into their new Cardiff City Stadium, a 27,000 capacity all-seater venue, after 99 years at Ninian Park. (22nd Jul 2009)
50th Second phase of the Victoria Line on the London Underground opens between Highbury to Brixton. (23rd Jul 1971)
10th The singer songwriter Amy Winehouse, 27, was found dead at her London home. (23rd Jul 2011)
2nd Boris Johnson is chosen as the new Conservative Party leader in a ballot of party members, beating Jeremy Hunt by 92,153 votes to 46,656. (23rd Jul 2019)
12th The Government launches the National Pandemic Flu Service across England, a website and phoneline allowing people who think they have the pandemic H1N1/09 virus to bypass the NHS to obtain antiviral drugs. The website crashes within hours of its launch due to the overwhelming demand. (23rd Jul 2009)
610th Battle of Harlaw, one of the bloodiest battles in Scotland, takes place. (24th Jul 1411)
454th Mary, Queen of Scots, is forced to abdicate and replaced by her 1-year-old son James VI. (24th Jul 1567)
83rd Test cricket is televised for the first time. (24th Jul 1938)
467th Mary I marries Philip II of Spain at Winchester Cathedral (25th Jul 1554)
418th James VI of Scotland is crowned as king of England (James I of England), bringing the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into personal union. Political union would occur in 1707. (25th Jul 1603)
412th The English ship Sea Venture, en route to Virginia, is deliberately driven ashore during a storm at Bermuda to prevent its sinking; the survivors go on to found a new colony there. (25th Jul 1609)
226th The first stone of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is laid. (25th Jul 1795)
184th The first commercial use of an electric telegraph is successfully demonstrated by William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone on 25 July 1837 between Euston and Camden Town in London. (25th Jul 1837)
112th Louis Blériot makes the first flight across the English Channel in a heavier-than-air machine from (Calais to Dover) in 37 minutes. (25th Jul 1909)
106th RFC Captain Lanoe Hawker becomes the first British military aviator to earn the Victoria Cross, for defeating three German two-seat observation aircraft in one day, over the Western Front. (25th Jul 1915)
62nd SR-N1 hovercraft crosses the English Channel from Calais to Dover in just over 2 hours. (25th Jul 1959)
43rd Louise Brown, the world's first "test tube baby" is born. (25th Jul 1978)
207th George Stephenson puts his first steam locomotive into service, the Blücher for Killingworth Colliery on Tyneside. (25th Jul 1814)
43rd Motability, a charity which provides cars to disabled people, founded. (25th Jul 1978)
73rd end of post-war bread rationing. (25th Jul 1948)
2nd The UK experiences its hottest day on record, with a temperature of 38.7??C (101.7??F) at Cambridge, beating the previous high of 38.5??C (101.3??F) in Faversham, Kent, on 10 August 2003. (25th Jul 2019)
552nd Wars of the Roses: the Battle of Edgecote Moor pitting the forces of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick against those of Edward IV of England takes place. (26th Jul 1469)
218th The Surrey Iron Railway, arguably the world's first public railway, opens in south London. (26th Jul 1803)
85th King Edward VIII, in one of his few official duties before he abdicates the throne, officially unveils the Canadian National Vimy Memorial. (26th Jul 1936)
77th The first German V-2 rocket hits Great Britain. (26th Jul 1944)
76th The Labour Party wins the United Kingdom general election of July 5 by a landslide, removing Winston Churchill from power. (26th Jul 1945)
70th Walt Disney's 13th animated film, Alice in Wonderland, premieres in London, United Kingdom. (26th Jul 1951)
108th 50,000 women take part in a pilgrimage in Hyde Park, London organised by the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies. (26th Jul 1913)
107th Erskine Childers and his wife Molly sail into Howth in his yacht Asgard and land 2,500 guns for the Irish Volunteers. (26th Jul 1914)
207th Opening of Ryde Pier on the Isle of Wight, the first pier in Britain. (26th Jul 1814)
76th General election results are announced; Winston Churchill resigns as prime minister after his Conservative Party is soundly defeated by the Labour Party, who have a majority of 146 seats, and Clement Attlee becomes the new prime minister. It will be the first time that a Labour government with a commons majority has governed Britain. (26th Jul 1945)
63rd the Queen gives her son Charles the customary title of Prince of Wales. (26th Jul 1958)
967th Siward, Earl of Northumbria invades Scotland and defeats Macbeth, King of Scotland somewhere north of the Firth of Forth. (27th Jul 1054)
807th Battle of Bouvines: in France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. (27th Jul 1214)
358th The English Parliament passes the second Navigation Act requiring that all goods bound for the American colonies have to be sent in English ships from English ports. (27th Jul 1663)
332nd Glorious Revolution: the Battle of Killiecrankie ends. (27th Jul 1689)
327th A Royal Charter is granted to the Bank of England. (27th Jul 1694)
156th Welsh settlers arrive at Chubut in Argentina. (27th Jul 1865)
72nd Initial flight of the de Havilland Comet, the first jet-powered airliner. (27th Jul 1949)
56th Edward Heath becomes leader of the British Conservative Party following its first leadership election by secret ballot. (27th Jul 1965)
9th London hosts the 2012 Summer Olympics, beginning with an opening ceremony, and making the UK capital the first city to host the Games for a third time. The closing ceremony is on 12 August. (27th Jul 2012)
481st Thomas Cromwell is executed at the order of Henry VIII of England on charges of treason. Henry marries his fifth wife, Catherine Howard, on the same day. (28th Jul 1540)
73rd The Metropolitan Police Flying Squad foils a bullion robbery in the "Battle of London Airport". (28th Jul 1948)
57th Winston Churchill retires from the House of Commons at the age of 89. (28th Jul 1964)
109th London Underground's Central Line extension from Bank to Liverpool Street opens. (28th Jul 1912)
16th Birmingham tornado of 2005: F2 tornado hits Birmingham at about 14:40. 19 people are hurt, some seriously. (28th Jul 2005)
456th The widowed Mary, Queen of Scots, marries Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, Duke of Albany, at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, Scotland. (29th Jul 1565)
454th James VI is crowned King of Scotland at Stirling. (29th Jul 1567)
433rd Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines - English naval forces under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake defeat the Spanish Armada off the coast of Gravelines, France. (29th Jul 1588)
173rd Irish Potato Famine: Tipperary Revolt - in Tipperary, an unsuccessful nationalist revolt against British rule is put down by police. (29th Jul 1848)
114th Sir Robert Baden Powell sets up the Brownsea Island Scout camp in Poole Harbour on the south coast of England. The camp runs from August 1 to August 9, 1907, and is regarded as the foundation of the Scouting movement. (29th Jul 1907)
76th The BBC Light Programme radio station is launched for mainstream light entertainment and music. (29th Jul 1945)
73rd Olympic Games: The Games of the XIV Olympiad - after a hiatus of 12 years caused by World War II, the first Summer Olympics to be held since the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, open in London. (29th Jul 1948)
11th Metro Bank opens its first branch, in Holborn, London, the first wholly new high street bank for more than a century. (29th Jul 2010)
73rd Stoke Mandeville Games are held for the first time, the predecessor of the Paralympic Games. (29th Jul 1948)
553rd Hansa merchants expelled from London; Anglo-Hanseatic War breaks out with the Hanseatic League in 1469. (29th Jul 1468)
3rd The Supreme Court rules that legal permission is no longer required to end care for patients in a permanent vegetative state. (30th Jul 2018)
121st The London Underground's Central Line opens to the public. (30th Jul 1900)
86th Allen Lane founds Penguin Books to publish the first mass market paperbacks in Britain. (30th Jul 1935)
73rd gas boards created as the government nationalises the gas industry. (30th Jul 1948)
83rd The Beano comic first goes on sale, featuring the character Lord Snooty. (30th Jul 1938)
18th Eurostar train number 3313/14 sets a new speed record at 334.7?km/h (208?mph) on High Speed 1. (30th Jul 2003)
3rd Xeneral Webster, 19, is jailed for 17 years for the manslaughter of Joanne Rand, who died in June 2017, eleven days after he splashed her with acid. The case is the first acid killing in the UK. (31st Jul 2018)
51st Black Tot Day: The last day of the officially sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy. (31st Jul 1970)
49th Operation Motorman: British troops move into the no-go areas of Belfast and Derry, Northern Ireland. End of Free Derry. (31st Jul 1972)
48th Markham Colliery disaster: eighteen coal miners were killed at the coal mine when the brake mechanism on their cage fails. (31st Jul 1973)
98th The Liquor Act makes it illegal to sell alcoholic beverages to under-18s. (31st Jul 1923)
53rd the BBC sitcom Dad's Army is first aired on television. (31st Jul 1968)
12th Gary McKinnon, a British man with Asperger syndrome loses his latest High Court bid to avoid extradition to the United States to face charges of hacking into US Government computers. (31st Jul 2009)


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